After isolating the viruses, the team subjected each sample to different chemical and environmental treatments in an attempt to mimic the conditions that might trigger infection inside an actual cell. For example, after being gobbled by a cell, the viruses sit in a membrane-bound bubble called a vacuole, which tends to be very acidic (low pH). The team then placed the treated viruses under a cryo-electron microscopy (EM) microscope, which transmits beams of negatively charged particles through the sample to capture atomic-resolution images. They also scanned the samples with a scanning electron microscope to take detailed images of the viral surface. … [Read more...] about Giant viruses spew their DNA through a ‘stargate.’ Now, scientists know what triggers them.
Virus and bacteria
But what is particularly interesting is their tolerance to viruses, which exceeds that of other mammals. When bats fly, they release a great amount of energy, which increases their body temperature to 38–41 C. The pathogens that have evolved in bats are able to withstand these high temperatures. This poses a problem for humans because our immune system has evolved to use high temperatures — in the form of fevers — as a way to disable pathogens. … [Read more...] about Why bats don’t get sick from the viruses they carry, but humans can
Technology giants — including Amazon, Facebook, Hewlett Packard Enterprise (HPE), IBM, Microsoft, and Sandia National Laboratories — have announced that they are making all of their patents freely available to the public for use in the fight against Covid-19. The companies are doing this as part off joining the ‘Open Covid Pledge,’ which is a coalition of scientists and technologists to make their intellectual property available free of charge for use in ending the COVID-19 pandemic and minimising the impact of the disease. “Microsoft is always looking for ways to use our patents to contribute to positive outcomes, and the fight against Covid-19 is one of the most urgent issues of our time,” said Jennifer Yokoyama, chief IP Counsel of Microsoft. “Pledges and open licensing like this effort can help spur innovation, especially in a crisis like this one. Researchers, scientists, and others working against the virus should be able to develop and … [Read more...] about Amazon, IBM, Microsoft to make patents available for free to fight Covid-19
"Picosecond pulses of a suitable energy are about a thousandfold more difficult to make than nanosecond pulses, so it really simplifies making these polariton lasers quite significantly," said Malte Gather, a professor in the School of Physics and Astronomy at the University of St. Andrews in Scotland and one of the laser's inventors. … [Read more...] about New Laser Created from Jellyfish’s Fluorescent Proteins
Then Clerici and his team changed the lens to one that generates the Airy beam. Since the laser focus in one case was a curved line, the spark followed that path. They could even get the spark to jump around obstacles. In another experimental run they used a lens with a focus that was an S-shaped curve. A third type of lens could generate straight lines. … [Read more...] about ‘Iron Man’ Laser: Beams Can Shape Electrical Discharges